Posts Tagged ‘Sweden’
Welcome to the latest edition of my newsletter for parents about pediatric topics. In it I highlight and comment on new research, news stories, or anything else about children’s health I think will interest parents. In this particular issue I tell you about a couple of new findings about allergies in children, as well as some new information about gluten sensitivity. I have over 30 years of experience practicing pediatrics, pediatric critical care (intensive care), and pediatric emergency room care. So sometimes I’ll use examples from that experience to make a point I think is worth talking about. If you would like to subscribe, there is a sign-up form on the home page.
Big News About Peanut Allergies
This one made a big splash both in the medical news sites and in the general media. Peanut allergy is common. It has doubled in the past decade, now affecting between 1 and 3% of all children. And it can be a big deal for children who have it, even life-threatening. For years we recommended that children not be given peanut products early in life, especially if they are at risk (based on their other medical issues) for developing allergy. Unfortunately, avoiding peanuts in the first year of life doesn’t make a child less likely to develop the allergy. So what, if anything, can?
This recent, very well done study published in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine is really ground-breaking. It took 4 to 11-month-old children at high risk for developing peanut allergy and divided them into 2 groups. One group got the “standard” approach — being told to avoid peanut exposure. The other group was fed peanuts 3 times per week. It was done in the form of either a peanut snack or peanut butter.
At age 5 years (the long follow-up time is a particularly strong feature of the study) the children who had been fed the peanuts had nearly a 90% reduction in the development of peanut allergy. This is a huge difference.
The study also was able to provide a scientific explanation for the difference. The children fed the peanuts developed protective antibodies that cancel out the ones that provoke the allergic response.
Washing Dishes by Hand May Reduce the Risk of Food Allergies
This report comes from Pediatrics, the journal of the American Academy of Pediatrics. There has been a long-standing theory about how allergies develop in children called the “hygiene hypothesis.”
The notion is that children, particularly in Western countries, are more prone to allergies (and asthma) because their exposure to microbes is delayed by our more sanitized environment.
In this study from Sweden, children in households that washed dishes by hand rather than using a dishwasher experienced a lower risk of subsequent allergies. The authors speculated that there was a causal association. They couldn’t prove that, but they also noted that early exposure to fermented foods and if the family bought food directly from farms also correlated with less allergies. I’m not totally convinced, but it is an interesting study worth thinking about. I expect to see more on the topic.
Does the Age at Which You Introduce Gluten Into Your Child’s Diet Affect Future Risk of Gluten Sensitivity?
Gluten sensitivity is in the news, with signs everywhere advertising “gluten free” as if this is always a good thing. I hear a lot of misconceptions about gluten sensitivity. Gluten is a protein found in grains such as wheat and barley. There is a condition, called celiac disease or sprue, in which a person can develop moderate or severe intestinal symptoms triggered by gluten. It is one of the eighty or so autoimmune diseases. The incidence of celiac disease in the US is about 0.7%. The risk of developing celiac disease is closely linked to a genetic predisposition to getting it. Importantly, if you don’t have the disorder, there is no benefit to eliminating gluten from your diet. In fact, the great majority of people who think they have sensitivity to gluten . . . don’t.
But for those children who do have a higher risk for developing celiac disease because of their genetic makeup it has long been a question if delaying gluten exposure will affect their chances of actually getting the disease. A good recent study gives an answer to that question, and the answer is no. There is no correlation.
If you think your child (or you) have problems with gluten there is a useful blood test that looks for a specific antibody. However, many people who have the antibody never get symptoms of celiac disease. The ultimate test is an intestinal biopsy.
My take-away conclusion is that all this gluten-free stuff you see in, for example, restaurants, is just the latest dietary fad. For over 99% of us there is no health benefit to avoiding gluten.
So How Much Pizza Do Teenagers Eat?
This is kind of a quirky item. If nothing else, it demonstrates how weird the medical literature can be sometimes. Every parent knows kids, teenagers in particular, mostly love pizza. A recent article in Pediatrics, a fairly respected journal, used food surveys to find how much pizza kids eat and the percentage of their daily calories they get on average from pizza.
The answer? The authors claim that in 2010 21% of kids ages 12-19 reported eating pizza sometime in the past 24 hours. That number is actually down from a similar survey in 2003. What about calories? For those kids who reported eating pizza, it accounted for about 25% of their daily calories, and that hasn’t changed. The authors primly suggest that we should make pizza more nutritious. I wish them luck with that. And I’m 63 years old and still like pizza.
Here is the latest of my more or less monthly newsletter on pediatric topics. In it I highlight and comment on new research, news stories, or anything else about children’s health that I think will interest parents. If you want to subscribe to it and get it in the form of an email each month there is a sign-up form at the very bottom of my home page.
How much of autism is caused by genetic factors and how much by environmental ones?
Autism is always very much in the news. There is intense controversy about its cause, although the bottom line is that we don’t know. It also appears to be increasing, although we don’t know how much of this is what we call ascertainment bias — finding something more when we look for it more. A big part of the controversy is the relative contributions of genetic vs environmental factors.
A recent study from Sweden offers useful information about this. The study was immense, over two million children, far larger than any previous ones.
The bottom line is there appears to be more or less a 50/50 split in the relative contributions of nature and nurture. That is, genetics contributes 50% of the causative factors, environment 50%. This is an important finding. Overall, a child with a sibling with autism has a 10-fold higher chance for getting the disorder than does a child without such a family history. The middle part of the article is dense, but the first part and the conclusions are understandable by non-physicians.
Those laundry detergent pods can be quite dangerous for your toddler
A recent study examined how common poisoning or other injuries are from those convenient laundry detergent pods. I have seen one severe case myself, causing breathing problems bad enough to land the child on a mechanical ventilator. This study surveyed poison control centers to find out the extent of the problem. It is not trivial.
Between 2012 and 2013 there were over 17,000 exposures to these things, a 600% increase from the previous year, indicating how popular they have become. I can see why they are popular — I use them myself. It’s a lot easier to toss one of them into the wash than pour out detergent from a bottle.
But that convenience comes at a potential risk. Toddlers put anything and everything into their mouths, and the alluring, brightly colored pods quickly dissolve when wet. The survey revealed that there were over a hundred children who required emergency placement of a breathing tube and one death.
So if you use those convenient items, make extra sure your toddler can’t get at them.
Finally we have vaccines for all strains of the deadly meningococcus
Infections from a bacteria called Neisseria meningitides (aka meningococcus) are horrible and often fatal. I have seen probably 20 children die in my career from this, and at least as many suffer terrible complications, such as loss of arms or legs. This is the bacteria you have probably read stories in the paper about because it can cause lethal mini-epidemics in schools and any place children and adolescents come together in close contact. The infections come in a couple of varieties: meningitis alone, meningitis with septicemia, or septicemia alone. Of the three, the last is generally the worst, with a high mortality rate and serious aftereffects in survivors.
There are five strains of meningococcus that cause disease. We have had a vaccine for four of them for many years. But one of them, group B, has been difficult to develop an effective vaccine for, and this strain is a common cause of disease. The big news, and it is big, is that we now have a vaccine for group B. Meningococcal vaccine is recommended for adolescents — see your doctor about getting it for your child.
All about caffeine: what is it, where is it, and how does it work?
This one is more for you parents than it is for your children. I ran across an excellent and readable summary of what we know about caffeine. First of all, the stuff is everywhere. It is a brain stimulant that is found in many food and drink products, although the most common sources are coffee, tea, and now energy drinks like Red Bull. Here are some fun facts about it.
- 68 million Americans drink 3 cups of coffee per day
- 21 million Americans drink more than 6 cups per day
- 50% of caffeine users experience unpleasant symptoms when they stop, typically headaches, which can last for a week
- 5 grams of it can be fatal, but that is 30-40 cups of coffee
Autism was first reported in the medical literature 70 years ago. In 1943 a child psychologist named Leo Kanner described a child with social difficulties and repetitive, stereotypic movements; the following year Hans Asperger described four such children. Since then we have gradually learned more about what we now call autism spectrum disorders (ASD), although we still do not know what causes it. From early on it was apparent that the risk for developing autism was higher among children who had other family members with the disorder. But how much higher? Twice as high? Ten times as high? Recently a very good study from Sweden has given us solid information about genetic risk for ASD. The study’s title is “The Familial Risk of Autism“.
Sweden has a very centralized and complete health care and medical record system. This allows tracking of relatives beyond the immediate family — cousins and grandparents — as well as siblings and half-siblings. One thing to note, however, is that Swedish society is much more homogeneous than ours, something that we should keep in mind when we interpret the results. The researchers also made no attempt to understand what environmental factors could be playing a role in ASD. The power of the study is that the authors asked a simple question: What is the risk for an individual child for having ASD and how is that risk affected by having other family members with the disorder?
The authors studied just over two million Swedish children born between 1982 and 2006. That is a huge study group, much higher than earlier ASD studies. What they measured was the relative recurrence risk for autism. This is the risk for the disorder among children with family members who have it compared to the risk for children with no family members with ASD. If the risk is the same for both groups, there is no genetic component. The extent to which the risk is greater for children who have affected family members is the contribution of genetic factors. This risk should get higher the closer the relationship — a sibling should cause a higher risk than, say, a first cousin. There is an important caveat to keep in mind here. Close family members often share the same environment as well as the same genes. A standard way to get around this problem is to study closely related individuals, especially identical twins, raised in separate environments. The authors weren’t able to do that, but it is still a very powerful and compelling study simply because of its huge size.
So what did they find? The risk for ASD in a given child was 10-fold higher if there was an affected full sibling, 3-fold higher if there was an affected half-sibling, and 2-fold higher if there was an affected first cousin. Plugging these numbers into a series of calculations, the authors determined that, overall, the contribution of genetic factors to ASD was 50%; that of environmental factors was 50%. So, half and half.
Autism is a complicated disorder. Like other neurological problems with both genetic and environmental components, such as schizophrenia, it is most likely a complex interplay of environmental influences on a genetically susceptible brain. There is an enormous amount of ongoing research to identify what is happening and what we can do about it, and I fully expect useful answers and treatments within the next few years. Studies such as this one are crucial to figuring it out.
A recent study by the Commonwealth Fund highlights what Americans experience in what passes for our healthcare “system” — higher costs, higher risks, and more stress. You can read about it on Chris Fleming’s excellent Health Affairs blog here, or else see the full study published here, in the journal Health Affairs.
The study surveyed eleven countries: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Survey samples sizes per country ranged from 1,000 to more than 3,500. From Chris Fleming’s blog, here’s a taste of a few things the survey showed.
• Twenty percent of US adults surveyed said they had had serious problems paying medical bills in the previous year. Responses to the same question from the other ten countries were all in the single digits. US respondents were also significantly more likely than adults in other countries to have gone without care because of cost.
• Thirty-five percent of US adults had out-of-pocket medical spending of $1,000 during the previous year, a far higher percentage than in any other country.
• Nearly one third of US adults (31 percent) reported either denial of payments by insurers or time-consuming interactions with insurers, a higher rate than in all other countries. Twenty-five percent of US respondents reported that their insurance company denied payment or did not pay as much as expected; 17 percent said they spent a lot of time on paperwork or disputes for medical bills or insurance — the highest rates in the survey.
• The United States had the widest and most pervasive differences in access and affordability by income of the eleven countries. The United Kingdom had the least.
We didn’t finish last in everything, at least — patients in Canada, Norway, and Sweden reported longer waits on average to see the doctor. But the key point to me is that America spends far, far more per capita on healthcare than any other country. For what we’re paying, we should get the best. We’re not. And those costs just have to come down — they’re unsustainable.