Posts Tagged ‘Robert Truog’

Medical ethics, patient autonomy, and futile care

January 25, 2011  |  General  |  No Comments

A while back the New England Journal of Medicine carried an excellent editorial by Dr. Robert Truog, a highly-respected medical ethicist at Harvard. It is about futility of care. Recently I had occasion to read it again, and it’s still an excellent summary of the issues.

In it he describes a situation in which parents of an 18-month-old boy with a rapidly progressive, fatal neurological problem disagreed with the doctors over what to do. In his editorial, Dr. Truog examines the various ethical aspects of futile medical care: pain and suffering, patient (and family) autonomy, and healthcare costs. I recommend the essay to anybody interested in these issues, especially after all the talk of “death panels” last year during the healthcare debate.

Most experienced pediatric intensivists, myself included, have encountered situations in which we, the doctors, believe continuing to support a child is unethical because it is not saving the life but prolonging the dying, whereas the child’s parents believe the opposite—that it is unethical to withdraw life support because all life is sacred, no matter the circumstances. Sometimes these situations arise because poor communication causes families to distrust the doctors. But sometimes both sides understand each other clearly, but still disagree profoundly about the proper thing to do. What happens then?

Doctors often make the argument that we should not prolong suffering. Establishing if a patient is actually in pain can be difficult, and anyway we virtually always have the means to relieve pain in these situations. More telling to me is the argument that families cannot compel physicians to act unethically, and most of us regard futile care as unethical. Yet even then the physician can simply withdraw from the case, although from experience I can tell you it is difficult to find another physician to take on cases like this, and abandoning our patient without finding them another physician is clearly unethical (and illegal).

What to do? I have been involved in several cases like the one Dr. Truog describes. Thankfully, in all but one the family and the doctors were ultimately able to reach an understanding both sides accepted. In the one case in which we could not agree, nature ultimately decided things for us, as she often does.

Stories like these remind me that the pediatric intensive care unit is a place where, if we pay attention, we can learn a great deal both about life and about ourselves.

Is it always wrong to perform futile CPR?

March 6, 2010  |  General  |  4 Comments

That’s the question noted ethicist (and pediatric intensivist) Robert Truog asks in a recent opinion piece in the New England Journal of Medicine. And it’s a good question, one that any experienced intensivist has probably asked themselves more than a few times during their career. (Although the journal gives free access to most of their opinion pieces, for some reason they didn’t with this one. So the link is to an extract, but but if anybody wants a full copy, let me know.)

I’ve written before (also in reference to an article by Dr. Truog) about the ethics of futile care — that is, care that is of no benefit to the patient. As a matter of principle, physicians are not obligated to provide such care. The question typically arises when a family asks us to use a potentially toxic or painful treatment in a situation in which a child has no chance (in the opinion of the doctors) of recovering. These are not uncommon situations; I’ve written real-life descriptions of a couple of them in one of my books. Yet even though we’re not obligated to do it, are there times when an attempt to resuscitate a terminally ill child is ethical, even necessary?

Dr. Truog thinks there are such times. Some families simply cannot accept, even after long, painful discussions, that their child will not survive. They cannot “give up,” which is how they may see a decision not to attempt CPR. Like Dr. Truog, I’ve cared for a few patients and their families like that. And, like Dr. Truog, I’ve done CPR on such children. I haven’t prolonged it, but I’ve done it, with the parents looking on, sufficiently long to demonstrate its futility. And the families appreciated that I had done it.

I suppose you could say that when I did that I was treating the family, not the patient. More extreme critics might say I was wasting resources or even being disrespectful of the newly dead. Yet there certainly are times, when their child is beyond saving, that it is appropriate to treat the family in this way. I think any intensivist who doesn’t understand that probably hasn’t practiced pediatric critical care long enough yet.

Medical ethics and futile care

July 8, 2007  |  General  |  2 Comments

This week’s New England Journal of Medicine carried an excellent editorial by Dr. Robert Truog, a highly-respected medical ethicist at Harvard. It is about futility of care. Most experienced pediatric intensivists, myself included, have encountered situations in which we, the doctors, believe continuing to support a child is unethical because it is not saving the life but prolonging the dying, whereas the child’s parents believe the opposite—that it is unethical to withdraw life support because all life is sacred, no matter the circumstances. Sometimes these situations arise because poor communication causes families to distrust the doctors. But sometimes both sides understand each other clearly, but still disagree profoundly about the proper thing to do. What happens then?

Doctors often make the argument that we should not prolong suffering. Establishing if a patient is actually in pain can be difficult, and anyway we virtually always have the means to relieve pain in these situations. More telling to me is the argument that families cannot compel physicians to act unethically, and most of us regard futile care as unethical. Yet even then the physician can simply withdraw from the case, although from experience I can tell you it is difficult to find another physician to take on cases like this, and abandoning our patient without finding them another physician is clearly unethical (and illegal).

What to do? I have been involved in several cases like the one Dr. Truog describes. Thankfully, in all but one the family and the doctors were ultimately able to reach an understanding both sides accepted. In the one case in which we could not agree, nature ultimately decided things for us, as she often does.

Stories like these remind me that the pediatric intensive care unit is a place where, if we pay attention, we can learn a great deal both about life and about ourselves.